what is aurora in geography UPSC

An aurora is a naturally occurring coloured light display in the night sky that is mostly seen in both hemispheres' high latitudes. The northern lights, or aurora borealis, are the name given to auroras in the northern hemisphere. Auroras are referred to as the southern lights, or aurora australis, in the southern hemisphere. The Roman dawn goddess inspired the naming of auroras.

what is aurora in geography UPSC

What is Aurora?

Bright phenomena known as auroras can be seen close to both the North and South Poles (Aurora Borealis and Aurora Australis).
They result from charged particles from the Sun interacting with the magnetic field and atmosphere of Earth.

The color of Aurora

Composition and Colours: Gases and particles, such as nitrogen and oxygen, make up auroras.
Light is released as a result of these particles colliding with the atmosphere.
The kind of gas involved and the collision's altitude determine the colours seen in auroras.

Auroras and Geomagnetic Storms

Solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) can cause geomagnetic storms, which intensify auroral activity.
Solar flares are energy explosions, whereas CMEs are the Sun's eruptions of plasma and magnetic fields.
Although they can happen on their own, CMEs are known to frequently occur in conjunction with solar flares, which are explosions on the surface of the Sun.

Solar Storms and Aurora Intensity:

 When solar storms are strong, the sun's activity rises, which intensifies auroral displays.
The auroras are made more intense by the quantity of charged particles that enter the Earth's atmosphere during these storms.
The aurora's visibility and vibrancy are dependent on the solar storm's strength and the Earth's magnetic field's alignment.

A geomagnetic storm: what is it?

About: The disturbances of the Earth's magnetic field brought on by solar flares are known as geomagnetic storms.
Cause: When these circumstances come together, the biggest storms are linked to solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs). A CME or fast-moving solar stream collides with the magnetosphere as it approaches our planet.
The magnetic fields of the Earth form its magnetosphere, which shields people from solar particle radiation most of the time.


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