origin of universe

Origin of Universe UPSC

Earth is a part of our solar system. The Solar System is a part of the central rotating arm of the Milky Way galaxy. There are innumerable stars and solar families in the three rotating arms of our ‘Mandakini’. Many galaxies similar to Mandakini together form a ‘super cluster of galaxies’. All the masses of the Milky Way are collectively called the Universe.

In other words, the combined form from the smallest molecules to the giant galaxies is called the universe.

There are mainly four theories about the origin of the universe, in which the first theory is the most popular and recognized.

Theories Related to Origin of Universe UPSC

  • Big Bang Theory Exponent – Abbe Georges Lamentiere
  • Inflationary Theory exponent Allenguth
  • Steady State Theory Exponent – Thomas Gould and Herman Bandy.
  • Pulsating Universe Theory Exponent – Dr. Alan Sandeja.

1. The Big Bang Theory

This theory was propounded by Georges Lamaitre (1894-96) for the origin of the universe, the galaxy and the solar system. Later Robert Wegener presented an explanation of this principle in 1967.
On the basis of scientific observations, the origin of the universe and its development can be explained in the following way.
The state when the entire universe was concentrated at a hot and dense point, 15 billion years ago. Due to excessive concentration, there was a sudden explosion of the point, which was given the analogy of Cosmic Explosion or Big-Bang. Along with this, time, space and object were derived. Within a very short time of the explosion, the point expanded to the size of a volleyball. Which later became similar to a fireball, whose radius was about 10 billion miles. After the stage of Agnibal, when the age of the universe was of one second and its temperature decreased a bit, fundamental particles and antiparticles were generated, which later formed atoms. One minute after the explosion, the universe expanded further and became a giant thermonuclear reactor. As a result, the nucleus of the Helium atom is formed in this state from the hydrogen nucleus. After a few hundred thousand years, a bright mixture of matter and radiation spread out. After a few billion years, clouds of hydrogen and helium began to contract to form galaxies and stars. About 98% of the composition of the Sun and other stars is made up of hydrogen and helium. The core of the stars became hotter due to nuclear fusion of matter. The stars began to glow and heavy substances started forming in the center of the stars.

About 10.5 billion years after the Big Bang, that is, 4.5 billion years before today, the Solar System developed. In which planets and satellites etc. were created.
Today galaxies are concentrated in the form of superclusters. These clustered galaxies are 100 to 400 million light-years away from each other. The space between them is black. * The distance between them is increasing due to the impulse received from the time of their creation.
The world’s renowned physicist Stephen Hawking has cited in his book ‘A Brief History of Time’ that the universe existed in the form of a pea about 15 billion years ago. After this, supporting the ‘Big Bang’ theory, he writes that after the great explosion, the form of the universe expanded. Today the same pea-sized universe is infinite and infinite.
American astronomer Edwin Hubble reported that the distance between galaxies is increasing. As the distance between the galaxies is increasing, the speed of their going away is increasing. We can compare it to an inflating balloon. If we make some small dots on this balloon, then as the balloon inflates, these dots will also move away from each other. Now if we consider these points as galaxies, then along with the expansion of the balloon ie the universe, the distance between the galaxies will also increase. This can also be understood by the Doppler effect of science.

Doppler Effect in Light

The observed apparent change in the frequency (or wavelength) of light, due to the relative motion of the light source and the observer, is called the ‘Doppler effect in light’. The motion of stars or galaxies can be estimated from the Doppler effect of light. Spectral lines of elements like hydrogen, helium, sodium etc. are found in the spectrum of light coming from stars. If a star is moving away from the observer on the earth or coming towards the observer, the spectral lines of its light will be shifted towards the long wavelength (red) or short wavelength (violet) part of the spectrum. The velocity of the star can be determined from this phenomenon. For this, the spectrum lines of the star’s light are compared with the same lines obtained in the spectrum of any element in the laboratory. If a star’s spectral lines are shifted towards the longer wavelength (reddish) part of the spectrum, the star is moving away from Earth, and if they are shifted towards the shorter wavelength (violet) part, then the star is approaching Earth. All the galaxies for which the Doppler shift has been measured have
(Red Shift) has been detected. It is clear from this that all the galaxies are moving away from the earth. This fact clarifies that the expansion of the universe is taking place. Thus, if we look back in time, these galaxies were closer to each other than today and about 15 billion years ago, the matter of all the galaxies of the entire universe was at one point, which is called the Point of Singularity. From whose explosion the universe was born. This explosion is called the Big Bang.

2. Inflationary Theory

Alan Guth propounded the inflation theory in 1980. According to him, the actual density of the universe is much higher than the density of the visible mass. This leads to the conclusion that invisible dark matter exists in the universe. Although the Big Bang and Inflation theory are almost the same. Because they have many beliefs in common; The difference between them is only related to the fact that after the explosion of the giant fireball
What kind of incidents happened within a second. According to the theory of inflation, after the violent explosion of the giant fireball, the universe expanded at an extraordinary speed in a very short period of time (Rapid Expansion or inflation). During this process, within a fraction of a second, the size of the universe increased manifold. Later clusters of dark matter led to the formation of galaxies. Stars were formed by the accumulation of substances generated by their explosion and planets were formed by the accumulation and organization of substances produced by the explosion of stars.

Quark is the basic element of this entire universe. It is found in nature in six forms, of which ‘up’ and ‘down’ are the lightest and are found in the nuclei of atoms of common elements. Apart from these, Charm, Strange, Top and Bottom are other additional quarks. Compared to the up and down quarks, the other four particles are heavier and are not found in ordinary matter.

Dark Matter

The World Physicists’ Conference was held in September 2007 in Amsterdam (Netherlands). A large number of research papers were read in the conference. The most discussed was the discovery of dark matter and dark energy by James Watson Cronin, Nobel laureate in physics (1980). According to this discovery, 96 percent of the universe is made up of dark matter and dark energy, forms of which we know nothing about. We have a misconception that we know a lot about the universe, but the truth is that we are only familiar with 4 percent of it. It is known that NASA’s satellite WMAP (2006) and the observatory Wilkinson Microwave Anistropy Probe orbiting in space also confirm the above facts related to the universe.

According to research, according to the latest model of the universe, 73 percent of the cosmic energy is in the form of ‘dark energy’ and 23 percent is in the form of dark matter. These are such hidden and unknown forms of matter, which apart from keeping the space bound, accelerate the continuous expansion taking place in it. In the remaining 4 percent, this ‘normal (visible) matter’ comes from whose atoms and molecules our visible universe is made. Scientists believe that dark matter is made of particles called neutralix. It is noteworthy that on December 17, 2015, China launched the ‘Dark Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE)’ to search for dark matter in the universe.

Map & Big Bang

MAP (Microwave Anisotropy Probe MAP) – was a probe satellite sent by NASA on June 30, 2001. Its purpose was to confirm the Big Bang Theory of the origin of the universe. The big bang theory has been confirmed on the basis of pictures obtained from the map. The map has also estimated that the existence of stars became possible only about 400 million years after the big bang. On this basis, the age of the universe has been estimated to be 13.7 billion years. This announcement was made by NASA on February 11, 2003.
Map project leader David Wilkinson died in September 2002. In whose honor the MAP satellite was named WMAP (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe) on February 11, 2003.

Kobe ​​Plan

To find out the secrets of the Big Bang, USA scientist John Mather started a plan ‘Cosmic Back-ground Explore’ in 1965. Kobe satellite is 894 km from the Earth’s surface in Polar orbit. Was walking at a height of Through this, Cosmic Background Radiation or Particles of Light photons were studied. This radiation is a package of energy.
These photons, which have been traveling through space since the Big Bang till now, provide information about the initial nature of the universe. Like- even after the end of the star’s existence, the energy coming from the star makes us realize its existence. According to scientists, the cosmic background reflection is not at the time of the explosion, but after 7 lakh years, when molecules were formed, and the nuclei of molecules bound electrons.

Cosmic Rays

Cosmic rays are the origin of cosmic rays due to change in the energy of matter. The amount of mass that is lost during the transformation of matter into energy is converted into energy, and this energy is released in the form of cosmic rays. In this the atomic nuclei rotate at a very high speed. * The reality is that space rays are not real rays. These are such fast-moving microscopic particles that continuously enter the Earth’s atmosphere from outer space. About 89% of these particles are protons, 9% radiation and the rest are nuclei of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and iron. These rays travel at a speed slightly less than that of light. These are also called primary cosmic rays. When relatively heavy particles of primary rays collide with the nuclei of air present in the atmosphere and give birth to other subtle particles, then these are called secondary cosmic rays. First of all, these rays were studied by a scientist named Millikan in 1925. * These rays are very harmful for living beings.

Large Hadron Collider

To find out the secrets of the universe, the ‘Great Machine’ established by the European Organization for Research in Geneva started working again from February 2010. Proton beams collide at almost the speed of light at the Large Hadron Collider (2HC), a megamachine, after a wait of nearly two years, as part of a mega experiment launched by the European Research Agency to find out the truth about the Big Bang theory about the origin of the Earth. Happened on March 30, 2010. Its purpose was to make the Big Bang or the beginning of the universe come true in the underground laboratory of The European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN). Countless data were obtained in this collision, after the analysis of these data ‘sub-atomic particle’ could be discovered.
After decades of tireless hard work and efforts, scientists have finally succeeded in discovering that ‘sub-atomic particle’, due to which particles have weight and due to which the universe and all the planets and satellites have come into existence and all the objects Form, size and weight have been obtained. This newly discovered sub-atomic particle is consistent with the ‘Higgs Boson‘ hypothesized years ago, which was called the ‘God Particle’. Scientists had hypothesized that mass exists in the Higgs boson itself, which together with gravity gives weight to objects. This God particle was still a matter of imagination and it could not be seen. So much energy was required for its discovery, which would have been at the time of ‘Big Bang’ 13.7 billion years ago. As it is known that for this, 27 km underground near the border of France in Switzerland. The long circular tunnel was built for proton smashing. Under the aegis of the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN), scientists discovered this unknown particle by creating a bing bang-like situation in this great machine- ‘Large Hadron Collider-LHC’. Two different teams of scientists, named ‘Atlas’ and CMS, were working for this discovery and the conclusions of both the teams remained the same. Among them, Joe Incadela of America was the head of the CMS team of 2100 scientists, while Fabiola Gianotti of Italy was also the head of the ‘Atlas’ team of about three thousand scientists. This discovery, considered one of the greatest discoveries in the field of physics, was announced by the scientists of ‘CERN’ (European Council for Nuclear Research) on July 4, 2012. Rolf Heuer, Director General of ‘CERN’, has described this discovery as such a milestone in ‘Particle Physics’, which will help in understanding the mystery of the existence of every object including the universe and will be able to uncover the secrets of the universe.

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